TECHNICAL PREPARATION of SWIMMING STARTS, TURNS AND STROKES
TALLINN UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATIONAL SCIENCES (ESTONIA)
While constructing the swimming technique requirements it was proceeded
that the swimmer should represent the scientifically proved individual
variant of movements.
Requirements for movements should be easily used in a training process,
both by the coaches and the swimmers. Proceeding from this the technique
of competitive swimming, starts and turns have been created in the following
technique of starts,
turns and strokes is described and studied as a system of movements consisting
if a phase changes
- the aim of movements will change as well;
one phase includes
the movements of the whole body;
each phase is determined
by the clear moment of the beginning and the end;
all the determined
phases appear to be useful on the different variants or individual style;
all moments from
one phase into another are considered as the positions of the swimmer,
describe the coordination.
Methods of construction of the technique consist of the determination
of movement parameters variations, received from good swimmers. More informative
parameters are found , the correlation of movements and differentiation
of the mistakes is determined, taking into consideration the aim of phases.
The technique is determined by presenting assignments for every phase
and movement. The general assignments of the swimming technique should
avoid unnecessary movements,
achieve the optimum combination
of contraction and relaxation of muscles,
guarantee the harmony
of breathing action and movements,
produce propulsive forces,
reduce the action of
guarantee the transfer
of force from one part of the body to another, with right timing through
maintain the dynamic
balance of movement.
The optimizing of technique is determined in accordance with the mathematical
regression analysis, the prognosis of the possible variants of movements
for the much better results in the future.
Videorecording system was adjusted for the under and above water videorecording
of the swimmer, allowing to register the movements of the swimmer's at
the start, turn or swimming . Videocamera is moving with the adjustable
speed parallel to the swimmer. Hardware and software for computer was
constructed for measuring of parameters and their analysis.
As a result of the extensive work with national teams of many countries
and world best swimmers during the last years has gathered experiences
for all variants of swimming styles, as well as for the starts and turns.
So, that the probability of the requirements is corresponding with the
swimming results. All the 15 technical parts used in competitive swimming
have been constructed as models: 4 styles, 4 starts, 4 turns + 3 turns
for the individual medley. Special testing system for improvment and control
of technical preparation of swimmers was created for practical work
of technical preparation of swimmers using testing system
The usage of wrong technique results from lack or incomplete movement
image. According to the very simple approach the IMAGE of MOVEMENTS consists
of several parts:
For teaching it is necessary to create for the swimmer , as complete as
possible, the image of movements. It means, that the information for the
right swimming technique must be saved into the memory of movements by
using all possible ways. The lack of self-control results from incomplete
and not integrated image of movements.
Usually the coaches and the swimmers have big problems with the correcting
of swimming movements. The repeating of wrong movements have no desired
effect, and technique does not change. The only way is to first correct
the IMAGE. Our scientific experiments with different sport activities
show that by correcting the VISUAL image you can reach up to 80 % of skills
for the simple movements, but then you still need 20 % and the others
must assist. Swimming movements are very complicated and for success we
need ALL listed parts of the IMAGE to be integrated. It means that usually
, when coach tries to work with technique: showing videos (visual), explaining
(verbal), shouting the rhythm during swimming (acoustical), doing exercises
on dry land and special technique exercises in water (kinesthetic) - then
success is not good enough because separate exercises do not create the
complete image for movements.
How to integrate ?
The main integration unit is VERBAL image. If you are working with the
visual part and showing the videoclip, then at the same time you must
explain and also the swimmer must think when following your orders. If
you are working with the kinesthetic part and making exercises you must
control your proprioreceptive feeling by verbal description (was it strong
or relaxed, early or late and e.g. ). The same with the acoustical work,
you must think about the verbal or digital descriptions of durations of
different rhythms, listening to the sounds during your swimming. Special
attention must be paid to the verbal image. All verbal descriptions have
to be short, understandable and integrated with some other parts of image.
It is necessary that verbal advice for movement is accompanied by some
digital number helping to make difference by quality or quantity. Good
and bad is not enough, that's why you need seconds for durations, meter
per seconds for speeds, centimeters for stroke lengths, and angles for
joint flexions or amplitudes. The swimmers must be introduced to the aims
and requirements for each part of the movement. Special attention should
be paid to the verbal descriptions of important positions of movements.
For correct using of VERBAL descriptions in practical work, we put it
in totally different, untraditional mode:
parts - phases
names and main aims
of each phase
movement elements during phase
positions between he phases
main digital parameters
of movements, phases and positions
Verbal descriptions are more useful and practically effective if we print
out the details which need correction. Digital parameters must followed
by evaluation marks as % values.
Now the practical advises for the exercises creating kinesthetic image,
integrated with visual and verbal ones.
The purpose of imitation exercises is to create a correct kinesthetic
perception, to acquire the self-control methods. The program of exercises
on dry land include imitation of positions on dry land. The question arises
why positions should be imitated. The answer is that changing from one
phase into another have the decisive importance. If the initial position
of the phase is correct, it means that the arms, legs, the head and the
body are in the best position, then throughout the whole phase it is possible
to perform the correct movements. If the initial position is wrong already,
nothing comes out of the further action either. On the other hand when
all the movements have been performed correctly during the previous phase
one would naturally reach the correct final position of the phase which
is the initial position of the next phase, etc.
Imitating exercises may be performed individually, in pairs or three together.
The positions will be taken on the exercise-bench, with the help of three
or two swimmers- one holds the arms, the other legs. In order to increase
kinesthetic sensitivity and to form a better image about the movement
in memory it is necessary while imitating the positions to perform static
efforts in positions in the right direction and for many muscle-groups
at the same time. The static effort must be performed in the direction
of the right movement but , using the isometric contraction. To verify
the integration of the visual image , the imitation exercises of the positions
should be performed also with closed eyes. If the correct position is
taken with the eyes closed, it means that kinesthetic perception has been
firmly achieved which is the precondition for mastering the further skills.
An important and effective influence in mastering the movements is the
description of the positions verbally. When the swimmers listen to the
descriptions given by the coach and act accordingly to them they are not
able to memorize them as effectively as the descriptions of their own.
The given information "goes in one ear and comes out the other",
but what you have explained and described yourself verbally, is memorized
The best form of performing such dryland-type exercises where imitation
includes verbal descriptions of orientation, is where one swimmer assists
the other to imitate the position, puts it into words, and describes where
the hands and legs are. Then the parts will be changed. This way both
can imitate and also describe the right instructions verbally. In the
training of the top-level swimmers the imitation of positions is used
together with verbal descriptions in the state of light hypnosis which
has given good results in improving their deeply rooted mistakes of technique.
To sum it up, after imitation of positions on dryland give effect in the
following exercises in water. On the basis of teaching observations we
may conclude that the transfer of exercises from dryland into the water
is noticeable especially in the coordination of swimming movements.
Performance of technical exercises in the water...