MODEL OF I.M. TURN TECHNIQUE FROM BUTTERFLY TO BACKSTROKE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES:

Swim in period
1. Swimming before turn
2. Approaching phase

Turning period
3. Rotation phase
4. Pushing phase

Swim out period
5. Gliding phase
6. Underwater kicking phase
7. Pullout phase
8. Swimming after turn








AIM of movements : Create high turn speed during change of swimming style !

Limiting positions beginning: start of the last butterfly stroke cycle before turn
  ending: end of the first backstroke cycle after turn



General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Prepare for proper approach to the wall before turn
Keep relaxed during rotation, gliding and kicking
Increase impulsive forces for push-off, kicking and pullout actions using elasticity of muscles
Decrease resistance during push-off and glide
Ensure correct timing of fixing joints for transfer of power during push-off, kicks and pullout
Use inertial momentum during rotation
Co-ordinate good breathing actions with movements
Inhale during rotation and begin breathing after turning actions are over
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase


PHASES:

1. SWIMMING BEFORE TURN





AIM of movements Try to continue with same swimming speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the end of the last full stroke cycle before turn
  ending: when the hands touch the wall

Limiting positions at the start of the last full butterfly stroke cycle before turn
at the end of the last full butterfly stroke cycle before turn

Parameters:
Forward butterfly speed: 1.4 - 1.5 (m/sec)
(Higher speed before turn is precondition for better turning actions)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate right moment for touching the wall


2. APPROACHING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to not lose forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the end of the last full stroke cycle before turn
  ending: when the hands touch the wall

Parameters:
Forward speed before touch: 1.4 - 1.5 (m/sec)
(Speed before touch indicate how good was timing to touch the wall, compared to swimming speed before turn)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate hands touch at the end of the recovery and leg kick


3. ROTATION PHASE





AIM of movements Try to minimise the duration of rotation !

Limiting positions beginning: when the hands touch the wall
  ending: when the feet touch the wall

Parameters:
Duration of rotation : 0.84 - 0.94 (sec)
(Indicate effect of grouping and turning)
Forward speed of hips during rotation : -0.3 to - 0.5 (m/sec)
(Shows that hips stops during beginning of rotation or continues moving forward)

Requirements for self control:
Continue movement of hips towards the wall with high speed
Avoid hands sticking to the wall, take one and then the other off the wall quickly
Make good grouping of legs during rotation
Place the feet correctly and simultaneously on the wall
Time feet to touch the wall with recovering arms entry to the water
Make quick inhalation during rotation
During rotation take horizontal body position for the start of push-off


4. PUSHING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to increase pushing power and speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet touch the wall
  ending: when the feet leave the wall

Parameters:
Forward speed during push : 1.30 - 1.75 (m/sec)
(Mean speed of hips during pushing indicate effect of pushing action. Mean speed should be analysed as beginning from zero and ending as max speed when feet leaves the wall : mean speed 1.5 m/sec means that max speed is about 3.0 m/sec and mean speed 2.0
Push off duration : 0.3 - 0.2 (sec)
(Push off duration indicate power of pushing : then shorter then better, but if swimmer is waiting before pushing, this duration considered as extra unnecessary time)

Requirements for self control:
Take streamlined position of body and arms for push, hide head between the arms
Keep back rigid and fixed during push
Keep horizontal direction of push, relatively deep, under wave
Begin push-off immediately after feet touch and make the duration of push very short


5. GLIDING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to maintain gliding speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet leave the wall
  ending: at the start of the first leg kick

Parameters:
Forward speed of gliding after push: 1.9 - 2.4 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows swimmer hydrodynamic streamline qualities and timing of the first leg kick actions)

Requirements for self control:
Head , body and legs position must be very streamlined during glide
Make deeper glide for longer underwater actions
Hold good horizontal body, head and arms position during glide
Avoid long duration of glide after push to maintain high speed


6. UNDERWATER KICKING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to not lose forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first leg kick
  ending: at the start of the first pullout stroke

Parameters:
Forward speed during leg kicks : 1.5 - 1.75 (m/sec)
(Efficiency of underwater undulation movements and leg kicks)
Duration of leg kicks: 1.5 - 2.3 (m/sec)
(If speed is high, then duration may be longer, if low then shorter)

Requirements for self control:
Leg action must be undulating movements with correct force transfer and rhythm on side or breast position
Keep head between stretched arms during leg kicks
Count optimum number of underwater leg kicks and make them with smaller amplitude at the beginning and bigger and stronger at the end
Feel for the best duration of underwater leg kicks to maintain high forward speed, and decide to begin first armpull from optimum depth
Use only effective dolphin legs kicks , instead of flutter kicks
Use movements trajectory of gradual rise to surface !
Decide about length of underwater part according to FINA rules - limit 15m !


7. PULLOUT PHASE







AIM of movements Try to increase pullout speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first pullout stroke
  ending: at the end of the second pullout stroke

Parameters:
Forward speed during first pullout stroke : 1.3 - 1.5 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate efficiency of that first pull)
Forward speed during second pullout stroke : 1.3 - 1.5 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate efficiency of that second pull)

Requirements for self control:
Timing the start of first pullout stroke must be in time, at the end of the last dolphin leg kick, and optimum depth of the body, not too deep
Simultaneously with beginning of first arm pull switch over to flutter leg kicks, so that catch of right arm pull is co-ordinated with the right leg kick up, or vice versa
Make first arm pull with extreme stretching forward of other arm
Body must be rising up to the surface at the end of the first arm pull
Timing of the beginning of second arm pull must be in time, at the end of first arm push, not too late - avoid extra gliding between strokes
The action of both arm strokes during pullout must be long with good acceleration, fixed elbow positions
Begin breathing actions (exhaling) during first pullout, and keep body position flat


8. SWIMMING AFTER TURN



AIM of movements Try to begin new swimming style with high speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first stroke after pullout strokes
  ending: at the end of the first full backstroke cycle

Parameters:
Speed of backstroke swimming after turn : 1.3 - 1.5 (m/sec)
(High backstroke speed indicate good swimming technique after turn movements and must be compared with pullout speeds before it, as well as with butterfly swimming speed before turn)

Requirements for self control:
Begin your normal rhythm of backstroke swimming with speed according to your individual tactical plan of the race