MODEL OF BUTTERFLY START TECHNIQUE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES:

Push-off and flight period
1. Reaction & preflexion phase
2. Pushing phase
3. Flight phase

Gliding period
4. Entry & gliding phase
5. Underwater kicking phase

Pullout period
6. Pullout phase
7. Swimming after start







AIM of movements High speed for the beginning of the race !

Limiting positions beginning: from the start signal
  ending: until the end of the start actions

General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Prepare for start, follow orders of starter, take starting position and be ready for signal
Keep muscles relaxed during gliding and kicking
Decrease resistance during entry, gliding and kicking
Increase propulsive forces during push-off, kicking and pullout
Ensure correct timing of fixing joints for transfer of power during push, kicks and pullout
Inhale after push-off and begin breathing after start actions are finished
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase


PHASES:

1. REACTION & PREFLEXION PHASE

AIM of movements Try to minimise duration !

Limiting positions beginning: from the starting signal
  ending: at the start of leg push



Parameters:
The duration of reaction with preflexion: 0.60- 0.50 (sec)
(This parameter indicate not only reaction to signal, but also time spent to all preparation movements before beginning real pushing actions. It is easier to reduce that duration, then pushing time)

Requirements for self control:
Take good body position. Grab position, head relaxed down, on the very edge of the front of the starting block (or if using “track” start try to locate centre of gravity equally for both legs )
Be relaxed before the starting signal
React to the starting signal as quickly as possible
React first from hip with forward movement
Avoid deep preflexion of knees


2. PUSHING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to create maximum pushing power !

Limiting positions beginning: at the beginning of push
  ending: when the feet leave the block



Parameters:
The duration of pushing action : 0.20 - 0.14 (sec)
(It indicates pushing power, as well explosive form of push)
Forward speed of head during push: 4.0 - 5.0 (m/sec)
(Head speed forward indicate that not only pushing by legs, but also body and head need to move fast forward to take fly-off position)

Requirements for self control:
Transfer impulsive pushing forces in a horizontal direction
Arms must be brought forward straight , without swinging, as quickly as possible
Head must move forward with high speed
Body angle at the end of push , must be nearly horizontal
The duration of push must be short


3. FLIGHT PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase the length of flight !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet leave the block
  ending: when the head enters the water



Parameters:
Forward speed of body during flight : 4.0 - 5.0 (m/sec)
(This is main parameter of successful flight, high flight speed is precondition for good start)
The length of head entry : 2.5 - 3.0 (m)
(Arms usually enter further then head, but if head enter after arms to the same length follow very successful entry of all body )

Requirements for self control:
Keep hips in very high position during flight
Rise legs up before entry
Make preflexion from knees before entry
Hide head between arms before entry
Keep high flight speed




4. ENTRY & GLIDE PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase entry speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the head enters the water
  ending: at the start of the first leg kick



Parameters:
Forward speed of hands during entry : 4.5 - 5.0 (m/sec)
(High entry speed shows swimmer quality of streamlining and will guarantee continuous high speed for gliding)
Forward speed of body after entry : 3.0 - 4.0 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows also swimmer hydrodynamic streamline qualities and timing of the first leg kick actions)

Requirements for self control:
Keep head , body and legs very streamlined, without splashing into water
Make an immediate small dolphin leg kick during entry
Avoid feet sinking too deep after entry
Do not lose forward speed immediately after entry


5. UNDERWATER KICKING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to keep high forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: start of the first leg kick after entry
  ending: start of the pullout stroke





Parameters:
Forward speed during leg kicks : 1.7 - 2.0 (m/sec)
(Efficiency of underwater undulation movements and leg kicks)
Duration of leg kicks : 2.0 - 4.0 (sec)
(If speed is high, then duration may be longer ,if low then shorter)

Requirements for self control:
Leg action must be with undulating movements with correct force transfer and rhythm
Keep head between stretched arms during leg kicks
Count optimum number of underwater leg kicks and make them with smaller amplitude at the beginning and bigger and stronger at the end
Feel for the best duration of underwater leg kicks to maintain high forward speed
Decide about length of underwater part according FINA rules 15m !




6. PULLOUT PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase pullout speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first pullout stroke
  ending: at the start of the second pullout stroke



Parameters:
Forward speed during pullout armstroke : 1.7 - 2.0 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate efficiency of that pull)
Forward speed during first recovery : 1.5 - 1.8 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate good recovery movements. Comparison to pullout speed shows rationality of speed fluctuation)



Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of pullout stroke, must be in time , at the end of the last leg kick, and optimum depth of the body - not too deep
Make pullout stroke with extreme stretching forward of the chin
Body must be rising up to the surface at the end of the pullout
The action of pullout arm stroke must be with good acceleration, high elbow position
Avoid breathing action (inhaling) during pullout stroke, and keep body position flat
Make pullout through “one hole” on water surface, head first then body and legs - not like a submarine
Keep a high body position on the surface during arms recovery
The action of arms recovery must be with good acceleration, together with body speed
Make the length of arms recovery as long as possible
Co-ordinate the entry of hands at the end of recovery with leg kick


7. SWIMMING AFTER START

AIM of movements Try to maintain high speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the beginning of the stroke cycle after start
  ending: to the beginning of the next stroke cycle





Parameters:
Speed of the swimming cycle after start : 1.6 - 1.8 (m/sec)
(High speed indicate good swimming technique after start movements and must be compared with pullout cycle speed before it)

Requirements for self control:
Decide to make the first stroke cycle with good breathing actions
Start your normal rhythm of swimming with swimming speed according to your individual tactical plan of the race