MODEL OF BREASTSTROKE START TECHNIQUE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES:

Push-off and flight period
1. Reaction & preflexion phase
2. Pushing phase
3. Flight phase

Gliding period
4. Entry & gliding phase

Pullout period
5. Long pull phase
6. Second gliding phase
7. Arm recovery & leg bending phase
8. First kick & pullout phase
9. Swimming after start




AIM of movements High speed for the beginning of the race !

Limiting positions beginning: from the start signal
  ending: at the end of the start actions



General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Prepare for start, follow orders of starter, take starting position and be ready for signal
Keep muscles relaxed during gliding, kicking and pulling
Decrease resistance during entry and gliding
Increase propulsive forces during push-off, kick and pullout
Ensure correct timing of fixing joints for transfer of power during push, kick and pullout
Inhale after push-off and begin breathing after pullout
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase


PHASES:

1. REACTION & PREFLEXION PHASE



AIM of movements Try to minimise duration!

Limiting positions beginning: from the starting signal
  ending: beginning of push from legs

Parameters:
The duration of reaction with preflexion: 0.50 - 0.60 (sec)
(This parameter indicate not only reaction to signal, but also time spent to all preparation movements before beginning real pushing actions. It is easier to reduce that duration, then pushing time)

Requirements for self control:
Take good body position. Grab position, head relaxed down, on the very edge of the front of the starting block (or if using “track” start position try to locate centre of gravity equally for both legs)
Be relaxed before starting signal
React to the starting signal as quick as possible
React first from hip movement forward
Avoid deep preflexion of knees


2. PUSHING PHASE




AIM of movements Try to create maximum pushing power !

Limiting positions beginning: from the start of push from legs
  ending: when the feet leave the block

Parameters:
The duration of pushing action : 0.20 - 0.14 (sec)
(It indicates pushing power, as well explosive form of push)
Forward speed of head during push: 4.0 - 5.0 (m/sec)
(Head speed forward indicate that not only pushing by legs, but also body and head need to move fast forward to take fly-off position)

Requirements for self control:
Transfer impulsive pushing forces in a nearly horizontal direction
Arms must be brought forward straight, without swinging, as quickly as possible
Head must move forward with high speed
Body angle at the end of push must be nearly horizontal
The duration of pushing action must be short


3. FLIGHT PHASE



AIM of movements Try to increase the length of flight !

Limiting positions beginning: when the feet leave the block
  ending: when the head enters the water

Parameters:
Forward speed of body during flight : 4.0 - 5.0 (m/sec)
(This is main parameter of successful flight, high flight speed is precondition for good start)
The length of head entry : 2.5 - 3.0 (m)
(Arms usually enter further then head, but if head enter after arms to the same length follow very successful entry of all body)

Requirements for self control:
Keep hips in a very high position during flight
Rise legs up before entry
Make grouping of legs or preflexion from knees before entry
Hide head between arms before entry
Keep high flight speed





4. ENTRY & GLIDE PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase entry speed !

Limiting positions beginning: when the head enters the water
  ending: at the beginning of the first arm pull



Parameters:
Forward speed of hands during entry : 4.0 - 5.0 (m/sec)
(High entry speed will guarantee continuous high speed for gliding )
Forward speed of body during first glide : 2.2 - 2.7 (m/sec)
(Higher glide speed indicates good gliding quality also right, early timing of first long arms pull)
Duration of the first glide: 1.25 - 0.8 (sec)
(If glide speed is high, then duration may be longer ,if low then shorter)

Requirements for self control:
Keep head , body and legs very streamlined, without splashing into water
Make deeper entry for long underwater actions
Take good horizontal body , head and arm position for the glide
Avoid long duration of first glide to maintain a high gliding speed




5. LONG PULL PHASE



AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: from the start of the first arm pull
  ending: at the end of first arm pull



Parameters:
Forward speed during first long pull : 1.8 - 2.1 (m/sec)
(This parameter indicate directly efficiency of that arm pull)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of the long pull must be as soon as you feel able to increase your speed by pulling.
Make the pull stroke with one dolphin kick
The action of the long pull must be wide, with good acceleration, high elbow position
Use leg action for compensation, one dolphin kick permitted
Keep body position flat during long pull


6. SECOND GLIDING PHASE



AIM of movements Try to avoid sharp loss of speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the end of the long pull stroke
  ending: at the beginning of arms recovery



Parameters:
Forward speed during second glide : 1.5 - 1.7 (m/sec).
(Too high speed indicate early start of recovery actions, too low shows resistance of position or too long duration of that glide)

Requirements for self control:
Keep body position streamlined
Decide the timing to begin arms recovery action by feeling forward speed


7. ARM RECOVERY & LEG BENDING PHASE

AIM of movements Try to reduce loss of forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the beginning of arms recovery
  ending: at the beginning of underwater leg kick





Parameters:
Forward speed during recovery actions : 0.6 - 0.9 (m/sec)
(High value shows quality of recovery movements by arms and legs, but it depends also from level of speed before recovery)

Requirements for self control:
During recovery bring arms close to body, with small resistance
Bring legs into position for kick, first bending knees, feet high, then from hips, knees widely separated
The timing of the start of the leg bending phase must be late, only after arms are near the shoulder line
Prepare a good position for first leg kick, arms and body stretched


8. FIRST KICK & PULLOUT PHASE

AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed again !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first underwater leg kick
  ending: at the start of the next leg kick





Parameters:
Forward speed during first pullout stroke cycle : 1.15 - 1.25 (m/sec)
(It must be higher then swimming speed on water level, it is allowed only once after start according rules, so use that option)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of the pullout stroke, must be in time , at the optimum depth of the body, not too deep
Make the pullout leg kick impulsive and the arm stroke for rising head up to the surface in time, at the widest part of arm pull
Keep high body position on the surface at the end of the pullout stroke cycle






9. SWIMMING AFTER START

AIM of movements Try to maintain high speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the stroke cycle after start
  ending: at the start of the next stroke cycle

Parameters:
Speed of the swimming cycle after start : 1,2 - 1,35 (m/sec)
(High speed indicate good swimming technique after start movements and must be compared with pullout cycle speed before it)

Requirements for self control:
Start your normal rhythm of swimming with swimming speed according to your individual tactical plan of the race