MODEL OF BACKSTROKE TURN TECHNIQUE

NAMES OF PERIODS & PHASES :

Swim in period
1. Swimming before turn
2. Roll - over stroke phase

Turning period
3. Rotation phase
4. Pushing phase

Swim out period
5. Gliding phase
6. Underwater kicking phase
7. Pullout phase
8. Swimming after turn



AIM of movements Try to create higher turn speed than swimming speed!

Limiting positions ending: at the start of the stroke cycle before turn
    at the end of the stroke cycle after turn

General cognitive assignments:
Avoid unnecessary movements during all phases
Prepare for proper approach to the wall before turn
Keep relaxed during rotation, gliding and kicking
Increase impulsive forces for push-off, kicking and pullout actions using elasticity of muscles
Decrease resistance during push-off and gliding
Ensure correct timing of fixing joints for transfer of power during push-off, kicks and pullout
Use inertial momentum during rotation in ellipse curve
Co-ordinate good breathing actions with movements. Inhale before roll-over and begin breathing after turning actions are over
Realise aims of movements in each phase but also prepare for the movements in following phase


PHASES :

1. SWIMMING BEFORE TURN



AIM of movements Continue with same swimming speed !

Limiting positions ending: at the start of the last full stroke cycle before roll over
    at the end of the last full stroke cycle before roll over

Parameters:
Forward swimming speed: 1.50 - 1.90 (m/sec)
(Speed before turn is necessary to compare to speed after turn)

Requirements for self control:
Co-ordinate correct moment for roll- over from back to breast before the wall


2. ROLL-OVER STROKE PHASE





AIM of movements Try to increase forward speed !

Limiting positions ending: at start of roll over action before turn
    when the head begins rotationall

Parameters:
Forward speed during roll over stroke: 1.60 - 2.00 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows efficiency of that different stroke before rotation. It is normal that speed of that stroke is much higher then backstroke swimming speed)

Requirements for self control:
Make powerful stroke with twisting of the body using kayaking action of recovering arm
Decide correct timing of beginning rotation, with head down, immediately after body is on the breast according to the rules


3. ROTATION PHASE





AIM of movements Try to minimise the duration of rotation !

Limiting positions ending: when the head begins rotation
    when the feet touch the wall

Parameters:
Duration of rotation : 0.80 - 0.65 (sec)
(Indicate effect of flip turning)
Forward movement of hips during rotation : 1.0 - 1.5 (m)
(Shows how much hips moving during rotation forward)

Requirements for self control:
Continue movement of hips towards the wall during rotation making ellipse
Avoid unnecessary movements of arms during rotation
Make good dolphin leg kick at the beginning of rotation
Place the feet correctly and simultaneously on the wall
Avoid too much over rotation of shoulders


4. PUSHING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to increase pushing power and speed !

Limiting positions ending: when the feet touch the wall
    when the feet leave the wall

Parameters:
Forward speed during push : 1.5 - 2.3 (m/sec)
(Mean speed of hips during pushing indicate effect of pushing action. Mean speed should be analysed as beginning from zero and ending as max speed when feet leaves the wall : mean speed 1.5 m/sec means that max speed is about 3.0 m/sec and mean speed 2.0
Push off duration : 0.3-0.2 (sec)
(Push off duration indicate power of pushing : then shorter then better, but if swimmer is waiting before pushing, this duration considered as extra unnecessary time)

Requirements for self control:
Take streamlined position of body and arms for push, hide head between the arms
Keep back rigid and fixed during push
Keep direction of push horizontal, relatively deep, under wave
Begin push-off immediately after feet touch and make push duration very short


5. GLIDING PHASE





AIM of movements Try to maintain gliding speed !

Limiting positions ending: when the feet leave the wall
    at the start of the first leg kick

Parameters:
Forward speed of glide after push: 2.2 - 2.7 (m/sec)
(This parameter shows swimmer hydrodynamic streamline qualities and timing of the first leg kick actions)

Requirements for self control:
Head , body and legs must be very streamlined during glide
Make glide deeper for longer underwater actions
Hold good horizontal body , head and arms position during glide
Avoid long glide duration to maintain high speed


5. UNDERWATER KICKING PHASE





AIM of movements Try not to lose forward speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first leg kick
  ending: at the start of the first pull-out stroke

Parameters:
Forward speed during leg kicks : 1.65 - 2.0 (m/sec)
(Efficiency of underwater undulation movements and leg kicks)
Duration of underwater leg kicks: 2.0- 4.4 (sec)
(If speed is high, then duration may be longer ,if low then shorter)

Requirements for self control:
Leg action must be undulating movements with correct force transfer and rhythm
Keep head between stretched arms during leg kicks
Count optimum number of underwater leg kicks and make them with smaller amplitude at the beginning and bigger at the end
Feel the best duration of underwater leg kicks to maintain high forward speed
Use only effective dolphin leg kicks instead of flutter kicks
Use movements trajectory of gradual rise to surface !
Decide about length of underwater part (according to rules max. 15m !)


6. PULLOUT PHASE





AIM of movements Try to increase pullout speed !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the first pullout stroke
  ending: at the end of the second pullout stroke

Parameters:
Forward speed during first pullout stroke : 1.55 - 1.9 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate efficiency of that first pull)
Forward speed during second pullout stroke : 1.55 - 1.9 (m/sec)
(Parameter indicate efficiency of that second pull)

Requirements for self control:
Timing of the beginning of first pullout stroke, must be in time , at the end of the last dolphin leg kick and optimum depth of the body - not too deep
Simultaneously with the beginning of first arm pull switch over to flutter leg kicks, so that catch of right arm pull is co-ordinated with the right leg kick up, or vice versa
Make first arm pull with extreme forward stretch of other arm
Body must be rising up to the surface at the end of the first arm pull
Timing of the beginning of second arm pull must be in time, at the end of first arm push, not too late, avoid extra gliding between strokes
The action of both arm strokes during pullout must be long with good acceleration, fixed elbow positions
Begin breathing actions (exhaling) during first pullout, and keep body position flat


7. SWIMMING AFTER TURN



AIM of movements Try to continue with same speed as before turn !

Limiting positions beginning: at the start of the stroke after pullout strokes
  ending: at the end of the full stroke cycle

Parameters:
Speed of the swimming cycle after turn : 1.55 - 1.90 (m/sec)
(High speed indicate good swimming technique after turn movements and must be compared with pullout speeds before it, as well as with swimming speed before turn: must be same or higher)

Requirements for self control:
Continue the proper rhythm of swimming and breathing actions with speed according to your individual tactical plan of the race